Chapter 7 Structures

Monosaccharides:  D, and L isomers of glyceraldehyde, ribose, 2-deoxyribose, glucose, mannose, galactose, fructose (also make sure you understand cyclization, anomeric forms, hemiacetal, acetal, hemiketal, ketal formation, reducing sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc.)

Disaccharides: 
D-lactose, D-sucrose, and D-Maltose

Polysaccharides:  Make sure you can describe the structures of starch, glycogen, dextrans, cellulose, and chitin but don't worry about alginates or agarose

Chapter 8 Structures

Saturated
Fatty Acids: Lauric acid (12 C), Myristic acid (14 C), Palmitic acid (16 C), Stearic acid (18 C), Palmitoleic acid (16:1), Oleic acid (18:1), Linoleic acid (18:2), Arachidonic acid (20:4)

Triglycerides: General structure; be able to draw triacylglycerols formed from the fatty acids above

Glycerophospholipids: General structure and all structures shown in Figure 8.6 (be able to draw glycerophospholipids formed from the fatty acids above)

Ether glycerophospholipids: General structure

Plasmalogens: General structure

Sphingosine/Ceramides: General structure, and be able to draw ceramides formed from fatty acids above

Cerebrosides: General structure and be able to draw cerebrosides formed from fatty acids above and the monosaccharides you were responsible for in Ch. 7

Gangliosides : General structure

Sphingomyelins: General structure and be able to draw sphingomyelins formed from fatty acids above and phosphate esters shown in Fig. 8.6

Waxes: General structure, and be able to draw waxes formed from fatty acids above and their corresponding fatty alcohols

Terpenes/Steroids: General structure


Chapter 10 Stuctures



Purine and Pyrimidine bases:  Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine,  Thymine, Uracil

Nucleosides and Nucleotides:  Adenosine, Cytidine, Guanosine, Thymidine, Uridine
.   Be sure to draw the corresponding 5' mono, di, and triphosphates of the nucleosides

Nucleic acids:  Be able to describe the stuctures of the DNA and the RNAs


Special Note:   Read the material in your text critically and try to pick out the key concepts, i.e., what is really important.  Remember that the lecture notes should guide you in the right direction.  Be sure to work all of the problems!