AR blanc au briquet, 26mm, 2.88gr. Obv: *KAROLVS*FRANCORVM*REX, center shield of France between 3 crowns and a trilobe. The mint mark is a dot at point 18, under the E of REX. Rev: *SIT*NOMEN*DNI*BENEDICTV, center cross with two lis and two crowns. Mint is Paris, second period (1436-61) Dup 522; C 694; Laufraie 514.
Calais Groat 1427-30 rosette/mascle, 26mm. Obv: HENRIC DI GRA REX ANGL Z
FRANC, crowned central portrait. Rev inner circle: VILLA CALISIE, outer
circle: POSVI DEVM ADJUTOREM MEVM (I have made God my helper), long
cross. Mint is Calais. S:1859, C:H64D-040/45.
In 1422 both England and France lost their kings, to be
succeeded respectively by the infant Henry VI and Charles VII. Charles was
mature, if timid, while Henry was a pawn of competing English factions. Map 1 shows both French and Anglo-Burgundian
holding in 1429 in northern France.
The lighter yellow areas are Anglo-Burgundian.
Near St. Peravy the French supposedly spooked a stag which
ran into the hollow or wooded depression and startled the English rear guard.
This caused both sides to realize how close they were to each other. Talbot’s
rear guard started to prepare for immediate battle. Talbot though he could
create an ambush but didn’t have time to prepare his position. Burne (258) says
this of Talbot’s defensive position: “The position selected by Talbot seems to
have run along the road from Lignerolles to Coinces, at a point where it
crosses the old Roman road from St. Sigismond to Janville. This point is near
the bottom of a slight dip in the ground (and was) … a few hundred yards in
front of the ridge that Fastolf would hold.” The common plan of defense was to drive
stakes into the ground facing the attacking force, so charging horses would impale
themselves, breaking up the attack. Talbot was accompanied by Thomas de Scales,
an experienced fighter. However, in this case the French came on so fast Talbot
did not have a chance to adequately prepare his position and his archers were
over run and slaughtered. Talbot and Scales were captured.
These pictures show
the repective views the English and French had. First the English
perspective. Talbot was on this ground (left photo) looking up at the
ridge over which the French came. The chemin de Blois follows a path
down from the ridge at the border between the grain crop and the maize.
The next picture is from further back - towards Fastolf's position. He
was actually further back than this view, and probably to the right. He
could clearly see the ridge over which the French came but would have
had difficulty seeing Talbot's line, given that it was in a dip in the
land. The track is part of the chemin de Blois, up which the English
survivors fled after the battle.
When the French
came over the ridge, this is the view they had. This is from the chemin
de Blois looking into the valley at Talbot's line (red) and up to the
ridges on the further side of the valley towards Fastolf's position.
After they passed through Talbot's line they attacked Falstaff. This is
the view NW along the chemin de Blois towards the higher ground likely
occupied by Fastolf. The buildings on the left of this second photo are
After the rear guard
fell, the French continued their charge and attacked the main body, “crushing
all who stood in their path and pursuing those who fled in the rout that
followed.” (Barker 123) Burne (259) gives a similar picture of French aggressiveness and English confusion. “… the
French attack was made in such large numbers and followed so closely by the
main body, that Fastolf found himself overwhelmed before he could take any
effective steps to oppose this surprise attack.” A France (103) also tells a similar story: “Feeling the
French cavalry at his heels, he (Fastolf) gave spur and at full gallop led his
men to Lignerolles. … There was no battle. Marching over the bodies of Talbot’s
archers, the French threw themselves on the English, who were as dazed as a
flock of sheep and fell before the foe without resistance.”
If, as A. France claims, Fastolf fled to Lignerolles, he
traveled diagonally across the French line of attack.
(also from Xenophon), offers an alternative location for the battle. It
also indicates ‘la Camp’ off the
Old Roman Road. Back on Map 4, this is the area circled in purple to
the SE of Patay. Burne places this as the location for Fastolf’s wagon
and and an army fleeing the crossroad in Map 6 would come at least
Fastolf managed to escape in what was widely perceived as a
cowardly flight, so was disgraced. Thomas de Scales and other English captains
were also captured. The result of this battle was the destruction of the
English army. Casualty estimates run the gamut. They range from 2 – 100 killed
on the French side with something in the range of 2000 killed on the English
Momentum in the war was now on the side of the French.
is a monument to the battle in the vicinity. It is on the D955 SE of
St. Peravy-la Colombe and marked on IGN 2119 E as 'Cr. Faron.' It does
not mention the leaders of the attack but gives Jeanne d'Arc prominent
mention. She was not in the vanguard or the main body with Alencon but
rather in the rear guard. This region celebrates itself as Jeanne d'Arc
territory and there are a number of sign post references to her in the
area. In addition to the text presented here, there is an older and
some what illegible marker at the foot of the cross (restored in 1912).
Barker, J., Conquest, Abacus, London, 2009
Battle maps: http://xenophongroup.com/montjoie/patay.htm
Battle images: Wikipedia.fr and stejeannedarc.net
Broad geographic maps: : http://www.stejeannedarc.net/histoire_wallon/appendice26.php
Burne, A., The Agincourt War, Wordsworth Editions, London, 1999
France, A, The Life of Joan of Arc, translated by W.
Stephens, Bodley Head Limited, London, 192518 June 1429
Gondoin, S.W., Jeanne d'Arc sur le chemin de la Victoire: di siege d'Orleans a le bataille de Patay, Histoire et Collections, Paris, 2010
IGN Carte Randonee 2119 E
Liocourt, F., La Mission de Jeanne d’Arc, 1981, Paris: http://books.google.fr/books?id=eiEqr0gvn4cC&pg=PA151&lpg=PA151&dq=liocourt+patay&source=bl&ots=xV8m03Q_j4&sig=AIaka-a4OHxqgdu-q7fdy-Aw1Kg&hl=fr&ei=UMhNTfv_H4bGlQeGuKjiDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
La bataille de Patay, par Martial d'Auvergne, enluminure issue de l'ouvrage Vigiles de Charles VII, Paris, France, XV seicle.
im-patay: La bataille de Patay, illustration des Chroniques de Charles VII